Life for the Balinese revolves so much around superstition

October 25, 2017

Life for the Balinese revolves so much around superstition….in order to help them we must be aware of this. They think that because they have left their ancestral homes they will get bad illness and depression. Also that they have not been tending their crops and animals…they will incur the wrath of the Gods who look after the crops and animals. Mistrust and anger is showing now as so many want to go home….but they remember the stories told to them of Agungs eruption years ago in 1963…they could all die like so many did in those terrible days. It has been estimated that 2000 people died the last time Agung erupted. Some stories tell that the people ran away, then went home when the danger was thought to be over….but it wasn’t and they died because they went back. They don’t understand that with todays is possible for scientists to record the seismic activity underneath Agung. They don’t live with todays gadgets or measuring systems….they go by the messages from the Gods. It would be a tragic disaster if this happened again….so we must make them as comfortable as possible and get them into some kind of occupations for their minds and bodies to adjust. It’s a nightmare each way with all of us. Knowing how to help, how to understand, how to give support and what is really needed…knowing how to touch their higher thinking….and how to keep ourselves strong as we are all in this together. How could we live with ourselves if we said…yes go home….and Agung erupted…Fear and a sense of doom overhangs us all……Pray for us all.


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BNPB: Thickness of Mount Agung Crater’s Sulfuric Steam Fluctuates

October 23, 2017

BNPB: Thickness of Mount Agung Crater’s Sulfuric Steam Fluctuates

BALI, NETRALNEWS.COM – Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, Head of Information, Data, and Public Relations of at the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB), Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, said the sulfuric steam generated at the Mount Agung crater has fluctuated. Rumbles can be heard at the crater, and the smell of sulfur is very strong.

Sutopo said the conditions indicate that the magma has reached the surface.

This statement was delivered by Sutopo, after Drone DERU made by Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) was again flown to monitor the crater of Mount Agung at 4,000m on Saturday (21/10/2017).

Sutopo said, the status of Mount Agung is still on alert [level 4], while the area of 9-12 km radius from the volcanic mountain is still considered dangerous.

“Outside the Gunung Agung zone, Bali’s situation is safe.” Bali tourism is safe, “cuit Sutopo, as quoted from social media official account (medsos) Twitter @Sutopo_BNPB, Saturday (21/10/2017).

Previously Sutopo said, until now there has been no visible signs of Mount Agung erupted. While as many as 136,000 residents have evacuated the area.

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Bali volcano update: Mount Agung volcanic activity plunges but warning remains

October 23, 2017

BALI’S highest volcano Mount Agung remains at risk of eruption despite a dramatic drop in seismic activity over the weekend.

Mount Agung has been under the highest alert level for a month and an estimated 180,000 people have evacuated from the area surrounding the volcano.Bali evacuees have been living in fear since the alert issued on September 22, but Mount Agung finally showed signs of stabilisation over the weekend.

The graph below shows that the Bali volcano was struck by less than 200 earthquakes yesterday, compared to more than 1,000 on Friday (October 20) and more than 900 on Saturday (October 21).

Between the hours of midnight and 6am this morning Agung was hit by just 47 quakes – significantly fewer than what volcanologist have come to expect in recent weeks.But Bali’s Disaster Mitigation Agency (PVMBG) has warned that the drop in activity does not mean the danger has passed.

“Although the activity has declined, it [seismicity] remained high,” Kasbani, head of the PVMBG, told Indonesia’s Antara News.

Plumes of white steam were observed rising between 100 and 500 metres above the volcano today and major structural changes have been observed at the peak.

Cracks have been spotted forming at Mount Agung’s crater and the top of the volcano has reportedly inflated due to magma forcing its way towards the surface.

Bali volcano: Mount Agung seismicity levels


Although the activity has declined, it [seismicity] remained high

Kasbani of the PVMBG

In 2013, Mount Sinabung erupted after its alert status was reduced to level three, according to Kasbani.It is estimated that about 180,000 people have been evacuated from their homes to escape being caught up in a possible eruption at Mount Agung.

Official estimates suggest that just under 150,000 people have moved to evacuation camps, with another 30,000 staying with friends or family on the island.

Mount Agung in Bali steamingGETTY



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Bali volcano latest – when could there be an eruption and how much damage could Mount Agung cause?

October 22, 2017

MOUNT Agung volcano on the island of Bali in Indonesia has been ominously rumbling for weeks as it threatens a devastating eruption at any moment.

When is Mount Agung expected to erupt?

Officials have warned that an eruption of Mount Agung on the tourist island of Bali is imminent with the active volcano in a “critical” phase.

Increasingly frequent tremors have been recorded amid a spike in volcanic activity.

Around 1,000 tremors are detected each day, indicating a flow of molten rock to the surface.

Bali governor I Made Mangku Pastika declared a state of emergency.

The fears prompted more than 140,000 people to flee the danger zone, around 45 miles from tourist resort Kuta.

The observation post for Mount Agung witnessed the volcano emitting a small plume most likely of water vapour on September 29. But there was no ash cloud.

Senior seismologist Devy Kamil told the BBC: “There are some examples where you have swarms of activity for as long as six years… and it is not always ended by an eruption.”

Indonesia’s Centre for Volcanology of Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) and the Geology Agency of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) warned all the signs said “the potential for eruption is still high”.

How much damage could an eruption cause?

The volcano last erupted in 1963 killing more than 2,000 people.

Locals heard explosions in February that year when ash and lava began to flow from the crater.

Almost a month later a full eruption sent debris up to six miles into the air and devastated numerous villages.

How many people have been evacuated?

Bali’s national disaster agency has said more than 130,000 people have fled the Mount Agung volcano.

Thousands are living in temporary shelters after a 7.5-mile exclusion zone was set up around the mountain.

But there are fears many are ignoring warnings or returning daily to care for the 30,000 cows left behind.

Vehicles filled with noodles, mineral water and blankets have been sent to the evacuation centres, while residents around the island have been collecting donations for those affected.

What is the travel advice?

Indonesian authorities are on standby to divert flights away from the island and tourist hotspots Kuta and Seminyak are on alert.

Transport minister Budi Karya Sumadi said: “The planes will be diverted to their nearest location or where it originally took off from.”

The airport in Bali’s capital Denpasar has not been affected but airlines are putting contingency plans in place in case the volcano blows, with 100 buses ready to evacuate tourists.

Chilling video shows what can happen the moment a massive volcano eruption strikes a major city, please note that this video is a simulation of what may happen with a volcanic eruption. Click HERE to view the video.

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Bali volcano update: Mount Agung on brink of eruption – is Mount Batur safe?

October 20, 2017

MOUNT Agung in Bali is expected to erupt imminently after hundreds of earthquakes were detected over the past two days. But is nearby Mount Batur safe?

The Indonesian government has raised the volcanic warning level for Mount Augung to level 4, the highest possible level, with experts warning of an imminent eruption.More than 1,000 volcanic tremors have been recorded over the past two days at rates similar to those which preceded the volcano’s last eruption in 1963.

David Pyle, professor of Earth Sciences at Oxford University, says that while it isn’t clear when the eruption will happen, it looks extremely likely that there will be one.

“We don’t know when, but the last eruption in 1963 started after about two days of very strong earthquakes, and the Indonesian scientists have seen the same pattern this time round,” he told

“There has been a very rapid increase of the number of earthquakes measured under the volcano, which is why they raised the activity to level 4.

“The expectation is that there will be an eruption, but we don’t actually know when that will be.”Prof Pyle said that nearby Mount Batur is likely being monitored by Indonesian scientists. But he added: “At the minute there is no sign of any unrest at any other volcanoes and it is not expected that there will be any impact.”

Mount Batur is just 18km northwest of Mount Agung and is just under half its size at 1.7km tall.


Bali volcano: Mount BaturGETTY

Bali volcano: Mount Baturhas stands at 1.7km tall

Bali volcano mapGOOGLE

Bali volcano: Mount Batur is located just 18km from Mount Agung

The volcano last erupted in 2000, although there were fears of an eruption in November 2009 when dozens of tremors were recorded.So far more than 80,000 people have been evacuated from the area surrounding Mount Agung after officials imposed a 12km exclusion zone.

If the eruption matches that of 1963, it would create a 20km tall column of gas, ash and rock debris which would destroy nearby crops, homes and livestock.

Volcano expert Professor Ray Cas explained: “The worst case scenario is if that column of ash and gas actually becomes overloaded with rock debris and collapses down to the ground surface, acquiring enough momentum to produce very dramatic turbulent flows of gas, ash and rock debris over the landscape that we call a pyroclastic flow.


Bali volcano: Mount AgungGETTY

Bali volcano: Mount Agung is expected to erupt imminently

“So they are the greatest volcanic hazard, they represent the greatest threat to life.”The eruption would also spew a fine cloud of ash which could potentially reach as far as Australia.

Prof Pyle explained: “The main impact of the ash cloud would be that aircraft wouldn’t fly through it. There would be disruption to air traffic, but ash clouds move quite slowly with the winds and that movement is predictable.

“It might be, depending on how the ash cloud goes, that there might be closures of particular airports temporarily, but it’s more likely that regional air transport will find a way around it.”



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Photos from Crisis Care team at Bedugul camp.

October 20, 2017


Here are some pics of our team in the Bedugul area…helping out.  It was an amazing two days…Wonderful people who can still smile even though they are hurting emotionally so much.

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Bali volcano update LIVE: Mount Agung eruption fears escalate – earthquakes strengthen

October 19, 2017

Mount Agung has been on the brink of eruption for a month
State of emergency in Bali was extended to October 26
Seismic activity around the volcano has spiked in recent days
186,000 people have been evacuated according to Bali’s Governor
Bringing you the latest news, live updates, seismic graphs, maps and warnings on the Bali volcano Mount Agung. (All times BST)
Related articles

8.45pm: Volcanologist warns that Mount Agung could erupt at any time

Heather Handley, Associate Professor in Volcanology and Geochemistry at Macquarie University warns that Mount Agung could literally erupt at anytime.

Ms Handley wrote in The Conversation: “The current volcanic activity – mainly the number of earthquakes – has not subsided since the alert level was raised to level 4.

“It continues to fluctuate at high levels, with more than 600 earthquakes a day. This indicates that the threat of an eruption is still high, despite a general decline in overall seismic energy.”

7.40pm: Could the Bali volcano eruption be detected from space?

As Mount Agung threatens to cover the island of Bali in lava and ash, researchers are considering new methods of detecting imminent volcano eruptions.

Simon Carn, a volcanologist at Michigan Technological University, published a series of papers on the possible detection of eruptions from space.

A paper co-authored by Mr Carn, outlines satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide, giving hope that orbital equipment could be used to locate sources of CO2 in the atmosphere.

“This is a demonstration that the technique does work, but we need better sensors before it becomes a routine monitoring tool, especially for volcanoes where we expect rapid changes in gas emissions,” Mr Carn said.

“If we could measure volcanic carbon dioxide from space routinely, it would be a very powerful addition to the techniques we use. That kind of observation would be useful (for Agung) right now.”

5pm: Sebastian Kettley takes over live reporting from Joe Tambini

Mount Agung: Volcanologists are looking into methods of measuring volcano emissions from space
2.49pm: IMF ‘monitoring’ Bali volcano

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is following Mount Agung’s developments closely ahead of a possible volcanic eruption, according to Indonesia’s Finance Minister.

Bali is due to host a meeting between the IMF and World Bank (WB) in October 2018, but Sri Mulyani Indrawati said the event will only be able to go ahead if Agung’s risks can be “controlled”.

She stressed that safety is her main priority and that any changes will be discussed with the IMF and WB ahead of time.
10.40am: White steam seen rising from Bali volcano
Shocking images coming out of Bali show Mount Agung spewing white steam.

Bali’s National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB) said plumes were observed rising 200m above Agung’s north and northeast slopes this morning.

Øystein L. Andersen‏, a volcano enthusiast living in Indonesia, tweeted: “Steam-plume is also visible today. Looks quiet up there, but seismicity under the volcano is still high.”

Bali volcano update: Mount Agung has been seen releasing white steam
7am: Bali officials encourage tourism despite Mount Agung threat

Bali’s Tourism Hospitality Taskforce has encouraged tourists to travel to the island, stressing that the region of Karangasem is the only area expected to be impacted by an eruption.

“Local authorities have assessed that the main tourist areas of Kuta, Legian, and Nusa Dua, at present, do not face serious danger of any immediate impact in the event of an eruption,” a statement read.

The UK Government has urged Brits in Bali to follow the advice of Bali authorities.

“You should monitor local media reports, follow the advice of the local authorities and stay outside the exclusion zone which extends between 9 and 12 kms from the crater,” the Government’s travel advice website says.

“If there is an eruption, volcanic ash clouds could result in airport closures and flight disruption in the region.

“In the event of volcanic ash clouds you should confirm your travel arrangements directly with your airline or travel agent before travelling to the airport.”

7.20pm: Mount Agung seismic energy decreasing

Seismic energy around Mount Agung is continuing to decline, an official has said.

Sutopo Purwo Nugroho of the Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB), tweeted a graph showing the change.

He wrote: “Mount Agung seismic energy continues to decline. The highest energy was September 22, 2017, when raised to Alert 4. After that it was downhill.”
5.00pm: Mount Sinabung spews ash

Mount Sinabung in Karo, Indonesia has been pictured spewing thick white smoke into the air.

The volcano began erupting in 2010 after lying formant for four centuries and has since regularly thrown hot ash into the sky.

Last year seven people were killed in a particularly violent eruption.

3.02pm: Volcano sirens on standby in case Mount Agung erupt

Six warning sirens are ready to sound out in the event that Mount Agung erupts, according to the head of Bali Regional Disaster Mitigation Agency (BPBD).

The sirens have been erected in the so-called ‘yellow zone’, just outside the 7.5 mile evacuation zone.

BPBD head Dewa Made Indra revealed they are each capable of projecting sound around a 2km radius, giving locals time to escape.
2.49pm: State of emergency extended again

The Bali Government has extended the state of emergency on the island for the second time as seismic activity underneath Mount Agung increases.

Bali Governor Made Mangku Pastika first imposed the state of emergency on September 29 with plans to remove it on October 12.

The end date was then pushed back to October 16 and has since been extended further to October 26.

Fri, October 13, 2017

Authorities have raised alert levels for a volcano on the Indonesian resort island of Bali after hundreds of small tremors stoked fears it could erupt for the first time in more than 50 years.
View of Mount Agung from Amed village in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia, 10 October 2017

1.45pm: Mount Agung hit by 788 earthquakes in a day

Mount Agung was hit by 788 earthquakes yesterday. Of these, 270 were shallow quakes, 474 were deep quakes and 44 were local tectonic tremors.

Fears of an eruption escalated over the weekend, when Agung was rocked by a magnitude 4.6 earthquake – the most powerful since the volcano alert was raised to the maximum level on September 22.

There has been a dangerous increase in seismic activity in recent weeks, indicating that magma is moving upwards.
Bali volcano graphMAGMA INDONESIA

12.22pm: Eruption is ‘more likely than not’

The consensus among volcanologists is that an eruption could still happen at any time.

Dr Janine Kripper, who has been monitoring Mount Agung closely for weeks, said an eruption is still “more likely than not”.

But she stressed that volcanic eruptions are notoriously difficult to predict. “There are too many unknowns, even with the best technology,” she said.
12pm: The wait continues for evacuees

More than 180,000 Balinese locals have abandoned their homes to escape the threat of eruption, according to Bali governor Made Mangku Pastika.

Official estimates suggest no more than 150,000 people have moved to evacuation camps, while thousands of others are staying with friends or family elsewhere on the island.

Mr Pastika said: “Of the 28 villages [inside the evacuation zone], the number of evacuees should be 185,865 people coming from 54,788 families.

“But I estimate that there are 30,000 or more who evacuated to their family’s homes.”

Mount Agung news: The Bali volcano has been threatening to erupt for four weeks
11.30am: Bali Governor claims there will be ‘no deaths’

Mount Agung has not erupted since 1963, when a series of explosions killed more than 1,100 people and injured about 300 more.

Bali Governor Made Mangku Pastika believes Bali’s swift evacuation process this time around means there will be no deaths if Agung erupts again.

“If something happened, even if an eruption happened today, I guarantee there will be no victims,” he said.

Initial reporting by Joe Tambini

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Bali Governor Asks Locals to Work Together to Assist Mount Agung Refugees

October 19, 2017
Bali governor Made Mangku Pastika (sekarjepun)

SINGARAJA, NETRALNEWS.COM – Bali Governor Made Mangku Pastika has invited people in the area to work together to help refugees from various regions of Karangasem regency, following the upgrading of Mount Agung’s status to alert in the region.

“This condition will last a long time The character of the volcano is difficult to guess, so I ask for everyone to work together mutually to aid our brothers and sisters, and make every effort to help them,” Pastika said when he visited the evacuation site in Tembok Village and Village Les, Singaraja, Buleleng Regency, Saturday (23/09/2017).

Pastika accompanied by a number of Head of OPD in the Provincial Government of Bali also inspire the empathy of the community around the refuge to help the needs of refugees either cooking equipment, tableware, foodstuffs and other needs.

Local community leaders, members of “tereka teruni sekaa” or youth, and PKK’s mother are also expected to be involved in assisting the refugees. Especially since the increased volcanic status of Standby (level III) to the status of Awas, automatically expanding the zone of dangerous areas and the impact on the number of refugees continues to increase.

“Do not let those in the refugee hungry or can not cook because there is no stove, do not just rely on government assistance only.” Residents around, I hope to help move, muster all the potential that exists to help, “he said.

The number one person in Bali also instructed that village officials continue to collect data on their citizens and record the urgent needs of the refugees and coordinate with relevant parties.

Pastika requested that it be immediately established or appointed who was responsible for the donations that came and the distribution of the donations.

“I am sure that many contributions from all over Bali will flow, so I ask for donations to be recorded, the distribution must be monitored, do not let any person take advantage of this situation,” he said.

The former Bali Police Chief was also appealed to the public stay calm and not panic and heed the instructions given by the officer.

“My people are asking for calm and do not get hooked on issues that are not necessarily true.” Monitoring the condition of Gunung Agung continues to be intensified, “he said.

After reviewing the refugees in Buleleng District, Pastika Governor and his entourage held a meeting with the Regent of Karangasem at Tanah Ampo Port, Karangasem.

Responding to many refugee points, Pastika instructed that the refugee camps be rearranged. For refugees consisting of less than 200 refugees to join other IDPs in several large evacuation locations such as in UPT Agriculture in Rendang, Field in Les Village, Buleleng Regency, Ulakan Field and GOR Sweca Pura.

“This is done to facilitate the distribution of food, safety monitoring, and the health of the refugees,” he said.

On the occasion, the Regent of Karangasem I Gusti Ayu Mas Sumatri said that the Karangasem regency has done various strategic steps such as arranging food distribution system, refugee data collection, provision of toilet facilities and medical personnel.

Sumatri conveyed the data of refugees is always updated every six hours and the last position was recorded as of September 23, 2017 at 12.00 local time, the number of refugees 15,142 and spread at 126 point of refuge location spread over districts/cities throughout Bali.


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Measuring Volcanic Emissions from Space

October 19, 2017
Simon Carn measures gas emissions from Mount Yasur in the island nation of Vanuatu in 2014. Source: Image Credit: Simon Carn

Late last month, a stratovolcano in Bali named Mount Agung began to smoke. Little earthquakes trembled beneath the mountain. Officials have since evacuated thousands of people to prevent what happened when Agung erupted in 1963, killing more than 1,000 people.

Before volcanoes erupt, there are often warning signs. Tiny earthquakes rarely felt by humans but sensed by seismographs emanate from the volcano. Plumes of water vapor rise from the crater. When the volcano begins to emit gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, eruption may be imminent.

But getting close to the top of a volcano is dangerous work. Using remote sensing to detect rising carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions without endangering people or equipment would greatly increase human understanding of volcanoes. Remote sensing emissions could prevent humanitarian disasters–and false alarms.

Mount Agung hasn’t erupted yet (at the time this article was written), but seismic activity remains intense. Balinese officials are beginning to wonder if an eruption truly is imminent; the people who were evacuated from the area want to return to their homes and tourism is down.

Researchers including Michigan Technological University volcanologist Simon Carn have published a collection of papers including “Spaceborne detection of localized carbon dioxide sources” in the journal Science; the article details the first-known measurement of localized anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide sources from a satellite in low-Earth orbit.

The five papers in the OCO-2 Science Special Collection showcase the abilities of NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite; measurements from the satellite’s sensors provide insights into how carbon links everything on Earth. The research is supported by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Monitoring CO2 Emissions From Space

The paper Carn co-authored discusses how the research team has taken high-resolution, sensitive spaceborne measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at the kilometer scale. This data reveals that the satellite’s sensors are able to pinpoint localized sources of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere–a difficult task considering the sheer amount of background carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to begin with.

The satellite uses spectrometry; the sensors onboard the satellite measure reflected sunlight–radiation–in high-spectral resolution using wavelengths undetectable to the human eye. When light passes through carbon dioxide, some is absorbed by the gas. The remaining light bounces off the ocean and the Earth. The OCO-2 sensors measure the light that bounces back to quantify what was absorbed by carbon dioxide, allowing scientists to isolate emission sources, whether human or natural.

“The main focus of the article is detecting localized, point-source emissions of carbon dioxide as opposed to measuring the broad-scale concentration in the atmosphere,” says Carn, an associate professor in the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences. “Volcanoes can be strong, localized sources of carbon dioxide. But on a global basis, all available evidence indicates that human activities are emitting much more carbon dioxide than volcanoes.”

The OCO-2 satellite’s spatial resolution–2.25 kilometers–is high enough that chemical signals are not diluted. However, while OCO-2’s measurements are unprecedented, the satellite cannot be used as a routine volcano monitoring tool because it does not pass over the same place on the Earth frequently enough.

“This is a demonstration that the technique does work, but we need better sensors before it becomes a routine monitoring tool, especially for volcanoes where we expect rapid changes in gas emissions,” Carn says. “If we could measure volcanic carbon dioxide from space routinely, it would be a very powerful addition to the techniques we use. That kind of observation would be useful (for Agung) right now.”

Carn combed through satellite data to find detectable spaceborne carbon dioxide measurements from three volcanoes in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. One of these, Mount Yasur, has been erupting since at least the 1700s, and on the day of the OCO-2 measurement was emitting carbon dioxide about 3.4 parts per million above background atmospheric levels, equal to about 42 kilotons of emissions. In comparison, human emissions average 100,000 kilotons a day.

OCO-2’s sensors also measured carbon dioxide emissions over the Los Angeles basin, detecting a sort of carbon dioxide “dome”. Urban areas account for more than 70 percent of anthropogenic emissions.

“Natural processes on Earth are currently able to absorb about half of human fossil fuel emissions,” says Annmarie Eldering, OCO-2 deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and lead author of an overview paper in Science on the state of OCO-2 science. “If those natural processes falter, slowing down the helpful removal of carbon dioxide, greenhouse-gas-induced warming would accelerate and intensify. These data begin to give us a better view of how climate affects the carbon cycle, reducing the huge uncertainty around how both might change in the future.”

The OCO-2 measurements across Los Angeles were detailed enough to capture differences in concentrations within the city resulting from localized sources. They also tracked diminishing carbon dioxide concentrations as the spacecraft passed from over the crowded city to the suburbs and out to the sparsely populated desert to the north.

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Bali News: Poisonous Gas Detectors Installed on Mount Agung

October 19, 2017

The Center for Volcanoes and Geological Disaster Mitigation (PVMBG) has installed specialized equipment to detect dangerous gasses emanating from Mount Agung. reports a Multiple Gas Analyzer has been supplied to PVMBG from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) that allow instantaneous analysis of gasses emitted from Mount Agung. A chemist from the PVMBG, Ugan Saing, said the detection equipment is portable allowing it to be brought into residential areas if local residents smell sulfuric gas aromas.

The Gas Analyzer, according to Ungan, has been specially designed for volcanic settings and can be used to detect both dangerous gasses and concentrations such a Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S).

The PVMBG has also installed a “tragger” – the stationary version of the portable Multiple Gas Detector.

Experts say while it may be that Mount Agung may prove to emit little or no gaseous fumes, PVMBG cites the need to be able to quickly detect gas emissions and determine if they pose a threat to nearby human populations.


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